This paper presents the production of quality hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders from tilapia bones using thermal treatment. Hydroxyapatite was successfully synthesized by calcination of 0.5M HCl pre-treated tilapia bones. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the nano-crystalline hexagonal structure of HAp powders. Peaks associated with impurities such as hydrates and carbonates decreased and van- ished along with the coalescence of particles as calcination temperature increased. XRD results also showed better crystal formation at 800 and 900oC. The synthesized HAp powder in this study con- formed well to the properties of biological apatites.